, Islamic historians of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire era also mentioned Diwali and other Hindu festivals. Sie ist die Göttin des Glücks und des Reichtums. Diwali, auch Deepavali bzw. An Diwali selbst wird neue Kleidung angezogen und man macht sich schick, geht in einen Tempel, betet und feiert anschließend mit der Familie oder in der Nachbarschaft. One day, the demon Ravana disguised himself as a beggar, so he could steal Sita.  It is traditionally a time when households purchase new clothing, home refurbishments, gifts, gold, jewellery, and other large purchases particularly as the festival is dedicated to Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, and such purchases are considered auspicious. Historically, Diwali can be traced back to ancient India.  According to David Kinsley, an Indologist and scholar of Indian religious traditions particularly in relation to goddess worship, Lakshmi symbolises three virtues: wealth and prosperity, fertility and abundant crops, as well as good fortune. Einige der Bräuche an Diwali erinnern auch an deutsche Feiertage. , According to Tracy Pintchman, Dhanteras is a symbol of annual renewal, cleansing and an auspicious beginning for the next year. Hindus, in particular, have a ritual oil bath at dawn on each day of the festival. , The day after Diwali is the first day of the bright fortnight of the luni-solar calendar. With that, there are a number of customs that revelers hold dear each year. Die Menschen machen fröhlich und tauschen Geschenke und Süßigkeiten aus, um das Lichterfest zu feiern. Subhadra welcomes him with a tilaka on his forehead. , The religious significance of Diwali varies regionally within India. Wasser, Chai-Tee oder Kokosmilchsind die üblichen Getränke. Sie hängen überall Lichterketten an ihren Häusern auf, essen viele Süßigkeiten und wünschen uns alle drei Meter auf der Straße "Happy Diwali!". The Vishwakarma puja day is alternatively observed in other Hindu communities in accordance with the Hindu solar calendar, and this falls in September. Each day of Diwali has its own tale to tell. According to Jethva and others, the post-monsoon custom is to prepare the crop fields by deliberately burning the residual stubble between October and November.  At dusk, lamps placed earlier in the inside and outside of the home are lit up to welcome Lakshmi. The inscription states that Ramachandracharya built and dedicated a drama performance hall, with a golden cupola, on Diwali. , Many Hindus associate the festival with Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, and wife of Vishnu. The vibrations produced by the greetings of love, which fill the atmosphere, are powerful. This is the day when Hindu, Jain and Sikh temples and homes are aglow with lights, thereby making it the "festival of lights". There is an air of freedom, festivity, and friendliness everywhere.Â. Shri Laxmi wird in Indien an Diwali verehrt, weil ein großer Rakshasa (Dämon), namens Narakasura getötet wurde und auch deshalb, weil Shri Laxmi zur selben Zeit dem Meer entstiegen ist – lange, lange Zeit zuvor. Some believe it to be the celebration of the marriage of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, with Lord Vishnu. Je nach Region dauert es zwischen einem und fünf Tagen. Hindu temples on this day prepare and present "mountains of sweets" to the faithful who have gathered for darshan (visit). From darkness unto lightâthe light empowers us to commit ourselves to good deeds and brings us closer to divinity. Food is a major focus with families partaking in feasts and sharing mithai. , The celebrations and rituals of the Jains and the Sikhs are similar to those of the Hindus where social and community bonds are renewed. It is an official holiday in a dozen countries, while the other festive days are regionally observed as either public or optional restricted holidays in India.  The lamps from the puja ceremony are then used to light more earthenware lamps, which are placed in rows along the parapets of temples and houses, while some diyas are set adrift on rivers and streams. , Some other faiths in India also celebrate their respective festivals alongside Diwali. Lord Rama, einer der wichtigsten indischen Götter, lebt mit seiner Frau Sita im Exil (warum die zwei flüchten mussten, daran kann ich mich leider nicht mehr erinnern). On the eve of his first visit to India as President of the United States, Obama released an official statement sharing his best wishes with "those celebrating Diwali".  According to J.S. Rise and shine. However, the focus of the Jain Diwali remains the dedication to Mahavira. , Diwali has increasingly attracted cultural exchanges, becoming occasions for politicians and religious leaders worldwide to meet Hindu or Indian origin citizens, diplomatic staff or neighbours. , The last day of the festival is called Bhai Duj (literally "brother's day"), Bhau Beej, Bhai Tilak or Bhai Phonta. [note 10], Diwali is not a festival for most Buddhists, with the exception of the Newar people of Nepal who revere various deities in the Vajrayana Buddhism and celebrate Diwali by offering prayers to Lakshmi. He has written several books about Hinduism for children and young adults. It celebrates the sister-brother bond, similar in spirit to Raksha Bandhan but it is the brother that travels to meet the sister and her family. Diwali wird am meisten in Indien, Sri Lanka und Nepal gefeiert. The tradition of gambling on Diwali also has a legend behind it. [note 12] Vishwakarma is the presiding Hindu deity for those in architecture, building, manufacturing, textile work and crafts trades.  In 2020, the INDF ETF was launched to mark the start of Diwali. Homes are illuminated with lights, and firecrackers fill the skies as an expression of respect to the heavens for the attainment of health, wealth, knowledge, peace, and prosperity.  During Diwali, people wear their finest clothes, illuminate the interior and exterior of their homes with diyas and rangoli, perform worship ceremonies of Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity and wealth,[note 1] light fireworks, and partake in family feasts, where mithai (sweets) and gifts are shared. According to one belief, the sound of firecrackers indicates the joy of the people living on earth, making the gods aware of their plentiful state. Indisches Essen Diwali Speise - Currys, Reisgerichte, Dal-Linsen, Masala, Tandoori BBQ, Snacks, Lassi, Mango Chutney - einfach Indische Rezepte What remains constant is the celebration of life, its enjoyment, and a sense of goodness.  The term "chhoti" means little, while "Naraka" means hell and "Chaturdashi" means "fourteenth". Illuminate your inner self. Nach meinen Eindrücken ist Diwali wie eine exotische Mischung aus Weihnachten und Silvester: Man feiert und beschenkt sich in der ganzen Familie, sitzt zusammen, isst und singt. Diwali also commemorates the return of Lord Rama (along with Ma Sita and Lakshman) from his 14-year-long exile and vanquishing the demon-king Ravana.  As crop productivity per hectare has increased with mechanised harvesting, this has led to the practice becoming more widespread in the northern and northwestern regions of India in the months when Diwali is observed. Jean Mead, How and why Do Hindus Celebrate Divali?, John Bowker, ed., Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Religions (Oxford UP, 2000), See Festivals, Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, 2020 Hindu Festivals Calendar, Hindu Tyohar Calendar for Glen Gardner, New Jersey, United States, https://www.drikpanchang.com/calendars/hindu/hinducalendar.html, https://www.drikpanchang.com/diwali/hanuman-puja/hanuman-puja-date-time.html?year=2020, https://www.drikpanchang.com/festivals/abhyangsnan/festivals-abhyangsnan-timings.html?year=2020, https://www.drikpanchang.com/festivals/gujarati-newyear/gujarati-newyear-date-time.html?year=2020, "Diwali 2020 Date in India: When is Diwali in 2020? Deepa means light. Deepaavali therefore means row of light/festival of lights. Diwali is usually celebrated twenty days after the Dashera (Dasara, Dasain) festival, with Dhanteras, or the regional equivalent, marking the first day of the festival when celebrants prepare by cleaning their homes and making decorations on the floor, such as rangolis. 10,000 on this Diwali: ASSOCHAM survey, "Festival of Lights: All You Need to Know About Diwali", "NextFins Celebrates Diwali With the Launch of INDF", "Prince Charles, Camilla celebrate Diwali in UK", "Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall Celebrate Diwali at BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, London", "Brown celebrates Diwali at 10, Downing Street, in a 'historic' first", "Pakistan parliament adopts resolution for Holi, Diwali, Easter holidays", "Muslim-majority Pakistan set to declare Holi, Diwali and Easter as public holidays", "Muslims join Hindus in Diwali celebrations in Pakistan's Peshawar", Location wise daily Ambient Air Quality of Delhi for the year 2015, Want govt to build 1600 km green wall along Aravalli, "India's courts take the fun out of a Hindu holiday", "Agricultural Burning and Air Quality over Northern India: A Synergistic Analysis using NASA's A-train Satellite Data and Ground Measurements", "Burns in the developing world and burn disasters", The Ancient Origins of Diwali, India’s Biggest Holiday, For More About deepavali from Karnataka Tourism Department, Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sembilan's Birthday, Anniversary of Installation of the Sultan of Terengganu, Declaration of Malacca City as Historical City, Declaration of George Town as World Heritage Site, Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos, Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, Emancipation Day in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus, Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos, Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month, Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day, Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple, Urus Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diwali&oldid=998963703, Articles containing Assamese-language text, Articles containing Bengali-language text, Articles containing Gujarati-language text, Articles containing Kannada-language text, Articles containing Konkani (individual language)-language text, Articles containing Maithili-language text, Articles containing Malayalam-language text, Articles containing Marathi-language text, Articles containing Punjabi-language text, Articles containing Nepali (macrolanguage)-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 21:12. The Jain Diwali celebrated in many parts of India has similar practices to the Hindu Diwali, such as the lighting of lamps and the offering of prayers to Lakshmi.  The term is derived from the Sanskrit words dīpa, "lamp, light, lantern, candle, that which glows, shines, illuminates or knowledge" and āvali, "a row, range, continuous line, series". The sages who instituted this Deepawali custom may have hoped that their descendants would realize its benefits and make it a regular habit in their lives. It falls on the 15th day of the Hindu month of Kartik, so it varies every year. Some people refer to Diwali as a five-day festival because they includeÂ the festival of DhanterasÂ (dhan meaning "wealth" and teras meaning "13th"). Each day has the following rituals and significance:, Dhanteras, derived from Dhan meaning wealth and teras meaning thirteenth, marks the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of Kartik and the beginning of Diwali.  According to Pintchman, who quotes Raghavan, this ritual may also be linked to the tradition in some communities of paying respect to ancestors. Most of the injuries sustained are Group I type burns (minor) requiring only outpatient care.. Ich bin zu Surbhie, einer Freundin aus meiner Klasse gekommen. Deepawali, Deepavali, or Diwali is the biggest and the brightest of all Hindu festivals. Diwali is celebrated for five days according to the lunar Hindu Calendar. Hindus rund um die Welt feiern Diwali mit Geschenken, Feuerwerken und Festessen im Familien- und Freundeskreis. , The third day is the height of the festival, and coincides with the last day of the dark fortnight of the lunar month.  (According to Indologist Constance Jones, this night ends the lunar month of Ashwin and starts the month of Kartik – but see this note[note 3] and Amanta and Purnima systems.)  Another study of air pollution in Delhi found that the PM2.5 levels in 2015 and 2016 did rise over Diwali, but these higher levels were "a result of contribution from fireworks on the Diwali night, trans-regional movement of pollutants due to crop residue burning, low wind speed, and high humidity". Die Desserts aus Diwali sind so reichhaltig und lecker, dass es einfach unmöglich ist, sie gehen zu lassen, während jeder in Ihrer Familie Bissen isst. Diese Woche wird in Indien Diwali gefeiert, ein mehrtägiges Fest, dessen Hintergrund uns zwar nicht bekannt ist, aber für die Inder scheint es sehr bedeutsam zu sein.  In another interpretation, it is thought to reference the legend of Parvati and her husband Shiva playing a game of dyuta (dice) on a board of twelve squares and thirty pieces, Parvati wins. , As per another popular tradition, in the Dvapara Yuga period, Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, killed the demon Narakasura, who was evil king of Pragjyotishapura, near present-day Assam and released 16000 girls held captive by Narakasura. In den verschiedenen Teilen des indischen Subkontinents wird das Fest sehr unterschiedlich gefeiert, mit vielfältigen Bräuchen und unterschiedlichen mythologischen Bezügen.  The festival formally begins two days before the night of Diwali, and ends two days thereafter.  In Nepal, it is also a multiday festival, although the days and rituals are named differently, with the climax being called the Tihar festival by Hindus and Swanti festival by Buddhists. The Badami Cave Temples with sculture depicting Vishnu resting on Shesha (snake). According to Pintchman, the start of the 5-day Diwali festival is stated in some popular contemporary sources as the day Goddess Lakshmi was born from Samudra manthan, the churning of the cosmic ocean of milk by the Devas (gods) and the Asuras (demons) – a Vedic legend that is also found in several Puranas such as the Padma Purana, while the night of Diwali is when Lakshmi chose and wed Vishnu.  In his paper on The Lunar Year of the Hindus, Jones, then based in Bengal, noted four of the five days of Diwali in the autumn months of Aswina-Cartica [sic] as the following: Bhutachaturdasi Yamaterpanam (2nd day), Lacshmipuja dipanwita (the day of Diwali), Dyuta pratipat Belipuja (4th day), and Bhratri dwitiya (5th day). Diwali is celebrated around the globe. Ich entschied mich für Kebabs mit einem Hauch von Frischkäse und Warqi Paratha, was ein Klassiker ist. A variety of sweets are prepared using flour, semolina, rice, chickpea flour, dry fruit pieces powders or paste, milk solids (mawa or khoya) and clarified butter (ghee). Diwali along with Holi for Hindus, and Easter for Christians, was adopted as public holiday resolution by Pakistan's parliament in 2016, giving the local governments and public institutions the right to declare Holi as a holiday and grant leave for its minority communities, for the first time. In Bengalen (Ostindien) verehrt man zu Diwali die schwarze Göttin Kali, die sowohl den Tod als auch die Überwindung des Todes versinnbildlicht.  Many visit their favourite Hindu temple. , This day is commonly celebrated as Diwali in Tamil Nadu, Goa, and Karnataka. Kernaussage des Festes ist der Sieg des Guten über das Böse, der Wahrheit über die Lüge, des Lichts über den Schatten und des Lebens über den Tod .  The festival is widely associated with Lakshmi, goddess of prosperity, with many other regional traditions connecting the holiday to Sita and Rama, Vishnu, Krishna, Yama, Yami, Durga, Kali, Hanuman, Ganesha, Kubera, Dhanvantari, or Vishvakarman. , On the second day of Diwali, Hanuman Puja is performed in some parts of India especially in Gujarat. Kinder zünden Feuerwerkskörper an, um den festlichen Geist von Diwali zu genießen. The darkest night is the apex of the celebration and coincides with the second half of October or early November in the Gregorian calendar. , The youngest members in the family visit their elders, such as grandparents and other senior members of the community, on this day. A variety of entertainments are usually available for inhabitants of the local community to enjoy. It begins in It is believed that spirits roam around on the night of Kali Chaudas, and Hanuman, who is the deity of strength, power, and protection, is worshipped to seek protection from the spirits. Deshalb konnten wir auch in eine Gastfamilie, obwohl es kein Wochenende war.  Shops either do not open or close early on this day allowing employees to enjoy family time.  According to Rao, Diwali is one of the major festivals where rural Indians spend a significant portion of their annual income, and is a means for them to renew their relationships and social networks.  According to Goldstein, these are then shaped into various forms, such as laddus, barfis, halwa, kachoris, shrikhand, and sandesh, rolled and stuffed delicacies, such as karanji, shankarpali, maladu, susiyam, pottukadalai.  The 16th-century Portuguese traveller Domingo Paes wrote of his visit to the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, where Dipavali was celebrated in October with householders illuminating their homes, and their temples, with lamps. , Naraka Chaturdashi is also a major day for purchasing festive foods, particularly sweets. Diwali festivities include a celebration of sights, sounds, arts and flavours. Viele Menschen bezahlen zu diesem Anlass alte Schulden, legen sich neue Kleidung zu und reinigen ihre Wohnungen.  The main day of the festival of Diwali (the day of Lakshmi Puja) is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India, Malaysia (except Sarawak), Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Diwali ist Indiens größtes Festival, etwa so wichtig wie bei uns Weihnachten. Dipavali ( दीवाली, dīvālī; दीपावली dīpāvalī) genannt, bedeutet „Lichterkette” und ist das populärste indische Fest.  This traditional belief of the origin of Diwali, and its significance to Jains, is reflected in their historic artworks such as paintings. Each of the four days in the festival of Diwali is marked with a different tradition. Ram had a beautiful wife named Sita. Zu wissen, wie man Diwali feiert, ist für viele von Interesse, da es eines der wichtigsten Festivals der Hindus ist, das in vielen Teilen der Welt, insbesondere in Indien, gefeiert wird. [note 17], The 51% of which[clarification needed] is caused by the industrial pollution, 27% by vehicles, 8% by crop burning and 5% by diwali fireworks. [note 16], Many governments encourage or sponsor Diwali-related festivities in their territories. Der war noch ganz damit beschäftigt seinem Bruder Rama zu Hilfe zu sein. This includes Govardhan Puja, a celebration by Vaishnavites on the fourth day of Diwali. Lord Ganeshaâthe elephant-headed god andÂ symbol of auspiciousness and wisdomâis also worshiped in most Hindu homes on this day. , Diwali was also described by numerous travellers from outside India. , The artisan Hindu and Sikh community celebrates the fourth day as the Vishwakarma puja day. The Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue was founded as Secretariat for non-Christians by Pope Paul VI. Small business owners give gifts or special bonus payments to their employees between Dhanteras and Lakshmi Pujan.  On this day, many Hindus clean their homes and business premises.  Merchants seek Lakshmi's blessings in their ventures and will ritually close their accounting year during Diwali. Aber Sita war ja wieder da und so wurden wir Schwestern gerufen, um sie für die Krönung ihres Mannes zu schmücken. In al deze jaren heb ik nog nooit zo'n gezegende Diwali gezien. Still another possible reason has a more scientific basis: the fumes produced by the firecrackers kill or repel many insects, including mosquitoes, which are plentiful after the rains. , Diwali is a post-harvest festival celebrating the bounty following the arrival of the monsoon in the subcontinent.  According to the Jain tradition, this practice of lighting lamps first began on the day of Mahavira's nirvana in 527 BCE,[note 9] when 18 kings who had gathered for Mahavira's final teachings issued a proclamation that lamps be lit in remembrance of the "great light, Mahavira". Amavasya also tells the story of Lord Vishnu, who, in his dwarf incarnation, vanquished the tyrant Bali and banished him to hell.  Newar Buddhists in Nepalese valleys also celebrate the Diwali festival over five days, in much the same way, and on the same days, as the Nepalese Hindu Diwali-Tihar festival. Foto: sporadic.  Family members light up firecrackers, which some interpret as a way to ward off all evil spirits and the inauspicious, as well as add to the festive mood. Thus, people worship Hanuman the day before Diwali's main day.  In historic times, this was a day in autumn when brothers would travel to meet their sisters, or invite their sister's family to their village to celebrate their sister-brother bond with the bounty of seasonal harvests.  It is mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as the Padma Purana and the Skanda Purana both of which were completed in the second half of the 1st millennium CE.  Depending on the region, celebrations include prayers before one or more Hindu deities, the most common being Lakshmi. Sometimes these are wrapped with edible silver foil (vark). During the festival, Hindus, Jains and Sikhs illuminate their homes, temples and work spaces with diyas, candles and lanterns Generell darf sich die Frau erst selbst etwas zu essen nehmen, wenn der Mann, die Kinder und die Gaeste schon etwas zu essen haben. One of the earliest reports on this variation was by Wilson in 1847.  In Gujarat, Annakut is the first day of the new year and celebrated through the purchase of essentials, or sabras (literally, "good things in life"), such as salt, offering prayers to Krishna and visiting temples. Upon seeing the beggar, Sita stepped out of her circle, and Ravana stole her and escaped with a chariot into the sky.  Textual evidence suggests that Bengali Hindus worshipped Lakshmi before the colonial era, and that the Kali puja is a more recent phenomenon. One tradition starts a new month from the new moon, while the other starts it from the full moon. One particular firework called anar (fountain) has been found to be responsible for 65% of such injuries, with adults being the typical victims.  The festivities begin two days before amāvasyā, on Dhanteras, and extend two days after, on the second day of the month of Kartik. Und abends geht’s erst richtig ab: Nachdem der typische Zündeler seine Böller alle schon am Vormittag verschossen hat, startet die Mehrheit jetzt ihr Feuerwerk! The women, in particular, adorn themselves in colourful attire and decorate their hands with henna. Reasons to Celebrate Diwali the Festival of Lights, When Is Diwali (Deepavali)?  Along with Lakshmi, who is representative of Vaishnavism, Ganesha, the elephant-headed son of Parvati and Shiva of Shaivism tradition, is remembered as one who symbolises ethical beginnings and the remover of obstacles. The Diwali festival occurs in late October or early November.  The festival is an annual homecoming and bonding period not only for families, but also for communities and associations, particularly those in urban areas, which will organise activities, events and gatherings. [note 14] In the modern day, Diwali mela are held at college, or university, campuses or as community events by members of the Indian diaspora. Traditionally, Marathi Hindus and South Indian Hindus receive an oil massage from the elders in the family on the day and then take a ritual bath, all before sunrise. Amavasya, the second day of Deepawali, marks the worship of LakshmiÂ when she is in her most benevolent mood, fulfilling the wishes of her devotees.
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